Learning disabilities are neurological processing problems that can cause issues with primary skills and learning, such as writing, reading, and math. Learning disabilities may also interfere with high-level skills like time planning, organizational, short- or long-term memory, abstract reasoning, and even attention span.
Learning disabilities may include conditions like dysgraphia and dyslexia, but must not be confused with problems related to learning that results from hearing, visual, or motor responses.
Language Processing Disorder (LPD)
It is a specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). APD is characterized by difficulties in attaching sound groups to their particular definitions to form sentences, words, and stories. APD affects the interpretation of sounds processed by the brain. A language Processing Disorder (LPD) is related to language processing. LPD can affect receptive language and expressive language.
Dyslexia is a learning disability which affects language-based processing skills and reading. This type of disability affects reading fluency, reading comprehension, spelling, speech (occasionally), decoding, recalling, and writing. Its severity differs among individuals and may exist together with other learning disorders.
Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
This type of disorder is characterized by a significant discrepancy between weaker motor and higher verbal skills, social skills, and visual-spatial skills. An individual with this type of disorder experiences poor coordination and has trouble interpreting the nonverbal cues such as body language or facial expressions.
It is a learning disability affecting an individual’s fine motor skills and handwriting ability. The problems may include irregular spacing, poor spatial planning and spelling, illegible handwriting, composing or writing difficulties, as well as issues in writing and thinking at the same time.
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit
This disorder is responsible for affecting the comprehension of information that a person sees. It also affects the ability to copy or draw. Non-verbal LD and dysgraphia are examples of learning disabilities characterized by poor eye-hand coordination and holding a pencil too tightly.
Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
This condition affects how unimpeded sound travels through the ear and gets interpreted or processed by the brain. This type of learning disability is also referred to as Central Auditory Processing Disorder.
This type affects an individual’s ability to learn math facts and understand numbers. Persons suffering from this learning disability may also experience poor comprehension of math symbols, have trouble telling time and counting, and may also generally struggle with organizing numbers and memorizing.
It is essential to note that learning disabilities may also affect a person’s life beyond academics; these disabilities can also impact their relationships with friends, family, and co-workers. Learning disabilities are impossible to fix or cure; therefore these are considered as a lifelong challenge. Fortunately, with appropriate intervention and support, people suffering from learning-related disabilities can still achieve success in relationships, school, community, and workplace.